Biofilms are complex systems where bacteria, viruses, fungus and protozoa can find sanctuary and live exceptionally well. These biofilms can be found inside the human body. Examples of biofilm include: bacterial vaginosis, urinary tract infections, catheter infections, middle-ear infections, formation of dental plaque, gingivitis, coating contact lenses, and less common but more lethal processes such as endocarditis, infections in cystic fibrosis, and infections of permanent indwelling devices such as joint prostheses, heart valves, and intervertebral discs.

In our clinical practice, we believe that biofilms are at the root of chronic infections linked to autism and lyme disease because they contribute to the cell danger response, oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment and altered methylation as the body attempts to eradicate microbes that are “hiding” packed together with minerals and heavy metals.

Fossil evidence of biofilms dates to about 3.25 billion years ago. Biofilms are composed of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that form their immediate environment or house like structure. Biofilms have communication systems,

Biofilms act as a home that protects bacteria and other organisms, biofilms enhance rate of gene exchange and increase tolerance, biofilms can capture food and delivery it to the hosts. Anti-microbial drugs increase biofilms and make it harder to address harmful microbes living in the microbiome.

Breaking up biofilms must address the fact that essential metal ions, such as calcium, iron and manganese, accumulate in biofilms and contribute to the stabilization of the biofilm matrix. Often chelating agents help to break open this metal level of the biofilm.

Some bacteria such as Lyme (Borrelia burgdorferi), the causative agent of Lyme disease, has long been known to be capable of forming aggregates and colonies, and its own biofilm.

Bacterial biofilms are microbial communities held together by an extracellular polymeric substance matrix predominantly composed of polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids

Natural biofilm agents include, coumarin, resveratrol, ginger, curcumin, licorice and N-acetyl-cysteine, to name a few.


Bransa SS, Vik S, Friedman L, Kolter R (2005) Biofilm: the matrix revisited. Trends Microbiol 13: 20–26.

Fontaine, Benjamin M. Identification of Ellagic Acid Rhamnoside as a Bioactive Component of a Complex Botanical Extract with Anti-biofilm Activity. Front. Microbiol. March 2017. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00496

Hentzer M, Teitzel GM, Balzer GJ, Heydorn A, Molin S, et al. (2001) Alginate overproduction affects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm structure and function. J Bacteriol 183: 5395–5401.

Narenkumar, Jayaraman. Ginger extract as green biocide to control microbial corrosion of mild steel. 3 Biotech (2017) 7:133. 8 June 2017. DOI 10.1007/s13205-017-0783-9

Sapi, Eva. Characterization of Biofilm Formation by Borrelia burgdorferi In Vitro
October 24, 2012

Singh R, Stine OC, Smith DL, Spitznagel JK Jr, Labib ME, et al. (2003) Microbial diversity of biofilms in dental unit water systems. Appl Environ Microbiol 69: 3412–3420.

Whitchurch CB, Tolker-Nieslsen T, Ragas PC, Mattick J (2002) Extracellular DNA required for bacterial biofilm formation. Science 295: 1487.